Foreword

Special cases

Several AccessiWeb 2.2 criteria refer to special cases that are necessary for their understanding and implementation.

On the occaison of the official publication of the AccessiWeb 2.2 reference list, the list of special cases has been updated.

Glossary

The AccessiWeb 2.2 reference list refers to new terms, new definitions.

Terms of use

All the content published on this page is property of the BrailleNet association.

Contact

For any question on the use of these documents or about the AccessiWeb 2.2 reference list in general, please send an e-mail to info@accessiweb.org.

Letter A

Abbreviation

Shortening of a word or a phrase formed with first letter(s) (abbr tag). An abbreviation is pronounced by spelling the letters forming it (I.E. sncf).

Access to each page of the collection of pages

In the case where the collection of pages has a huge amount of pages, it is usual to present these links to access pages in groups of links, in a 10 links sequence, for example. This practice validates the test.

Accessible and activable by keyboard and mouse

  • An interface component (link, button, clickable element in Flash...) is accessible by keyboard and mouse when the user can take focus, indifferently, with the mouse pointer and the tab key.
  • An interface component (link, button, clickable element in Flash...) can be activated with keyboard and mouse when the user can start, indifferently, the action that is foreseen by the interface component with mouse click or the keyboard enter key.
  • Warning: for some interface components such as sliders (sliding or revolving button...), it is not possible to control the component only with the enter key. In this situation, other keys (such as direction keys) can be used.

Accessible version (for a document to download)

Documents to download for which format types are recognised as accessibility-supported must be made accessible either directly or by means of an accessible version or of an HTML version. Document formats whose compatibility is recognised are:

  • Microsoft office (Word 2003, OOXML)
  • Open Office Org (ODF)
  • Adobe PDF
  • Daisy

Content must conform to the list of criteria Electronic Documents to download (in french).

Note : txt format cannot be used to produce an accessible version for a document to download.

AccessiWeb criterion

It is a condition to follow to validate an accessibility issue. A criterion can be:

  • valid: if the condition is passed,
  • not valid: if the condition does not pass,
  • not applicable: if the element to which the condition refers to is not used on the analysed page or because of a special case.

AccessiWeb themes

The criteria of the AccessiWeb reference list are sorted in 13 categories covering all elements building a Web site. These categories are also called themes and numbered from 1 to 13.

A criterion is defined by:

  • the number of the topic it belongs to, followed by a fullstop,
  • its number in the topic,
  • its level of requirement, the first being Bronze, then Silver, then Gold,
  • its text,
  • example: Criterion 1.1 [Bronze]: Does each image have a text alternative?

Acronym

Abbreviation formed with the first letter(s) of the words that build it (acronym tag). An acronym is pronounced like an ordinary word (I.e. Afnor...)

Adjacent link

Link that is presentted in an adjacent way in the graphic layout (CSS enabled) and in the HTML code. In the HTML code, the link must be located just before or just after the object it is adjacent with.

Alert

Alert message that interrupts navigation or the use of the page, in particular, that requires to click on a button or a link in order to continue navigation or content use. For example, a dialog box that is generated via the alert functionality. By extension, a pop-in (content presented in a "window" that is inserted or displayed in the DOM) that needs to be closed to continue navigation or content use, is considered as an alert. Note: It is possible to propose to disable the concerned alerts before the alert is started, for example, via a user parameter or when the first alert is displayed, for instance, via a checkbox "do not display this alert anymore".

Alternate mechanism

Mechanism that is generally CSS based, allowing the user replace text with image of text inversely under the principle of style switcher. the mechanism can use a server-side script language or a client-side script language.

Alternative (for script)

Text or process associated with the script via an appropriate technique and allowing to provide a function or a content that is similar to the one provided by the script.

Alternative (Short and concise)

The conditions for the rendering of a text alternative (via assistive technologies, a screen magnifier...) require that it should be as short as possible. A length of 80 characters is strongly recommended; it will reduce the amount of necessary handlings for the users of Braille displays or screen magnifiers, in particular, to read the alternative.

Alternative (Text Alternative for a form button)

A text that is associated to a form button via an appropriate technique and that describes the action caused by the button (while viewing the form, the user is then able to identify the action related with the button).

Alternative (Text alternative image)

A text that is asssociated to an image via an appropriiate technique and that describes the information conveyed by the image (in relation with the context of the Web content it is included in). AccessiWeb 2.0 considers four types of alternatives related with the kind of image:

  • For an image that conveys information, the alternative gives the information that is necessary to understand the content the image is associated with.
  • For a decorative image, the alternative must be empty (alt="")
  • For a link image, the alternative must help to understand the purpose and the target of the link.
  • For a Captcha image or test image, the alternative cannot give the information conveyed by the image without making the associated function ineffective. In this case, the alternative should only allow to identify the kind and purpose of the image (E.G. Captcha image or image Number 3 of the exercise)

Notes: The availability or not of a title attribute for an image does not come under the AccessiWeb reference list. However, if such an attribute is available, AccessiWeb recommends that the content of the title attribute should be identical to the content of the alternative.

Ambiguous for everybody

The intent cannot be determined from the link and the whole Web page information that is presented to the user together with the link. (it means that a reader without disablities would not know the purpose of a link before activating it). Example: in the following sentence the word "guava" used as link: "One of the important exports is guava". This link could lead to a definition of guava, to a graph presenting a list of the amount of exported guavas or to a picture of people collecting guava. Until the link is activated, any user is uncertain and so, a person with a disability is not disadvantaged.

Area (of an image map)

Clickable or non clickable area of an image map.

Area (Clickable)

Image map region to which an action is associated; for example, starting an event in clicking on a link (for a client-side clickable area: area tag with the href attribute). The area tags are included in the map tag.

Area (Non clickable)

Image map region to which no action is associated (for a client-side clickable area: area tag with the nohref attribute). The area tags are included in the map tag.

Area (Text)

Image map region that displays text.

Audio information (time-based media)

All audio information that is available in a time-based media: words of personas and noises that are important because they are necessary to understand action.

Automatic redirect

Process consisting in automatically redirecting the user to another page, to display a page on the client side, on the same domain or a different domain.

Letter B

Braille display

A terminal that is connected to the computer and renders electronic information in Braille. Synonym: refreshable Braille display.

Block of quotation

A block of quotation is a content giving a quote and presented independently from other content (between two paragraphs or between two paragraph blocks). In HTML, a block of quotation is implemented via a blockquote tag.

Button (form)

Form element allowing to enable a predefined action. For instance, a form submit button allows to send information to the server that is collected to be processed. The button text must describe the action following its activation (for example: "start search", "Send your message").

In HTML, there are three types of form buttons:

  • input tag of type submit, reset or button,
  • input tag of type image,
  • button tag.

There can be four types of button text:

  • the content of the value attribute of the buttons of type submit, reset or button,
  • the content of the alt attribute of a button of type image,
  • The content of the title attribute when it is available,
  • the content of the button tag.

Bypass or quick access links

Links whose purpose is to allow to navigate inside of content (skip link, link to access the search form or to access the menu..).

Letter C

CAPTCHA

A CAPTCHA is a test used to tell human users from computer apart. The test is often based on images containing distorted text inviting the user to retype it. Other forms of CAPTCHA can be based on logical questions or audio extracts.

Character size

Value that is assigned to the character fonts that are available on a Web page. For Web content, character sizes must be defined with relative units (% or em) or keywords (xx-small, x-small, small, medium, large, x-large, xx-large, xsmaller, or larger). Note: the use of pixel (px) is forbidden.

Changes in luminance (sudden) or flashing effects

A pair of opposing changes in relative luminance that can cause seizures in some people if it is large enough and in the right frequency range.

Change of context

major changes in the content of the Web page that, if made without user awareness, can disorient users who are not able to view the entire page simultaneously. Changes in context include changes of:

  1. user agent
  2. viewport
  3. focus
  4. content that changes the meaning of the Web page

Note: A change of content is not always a change of context. Changes in content, such as an expanding outline, dynamic menu, or a tab control do not necessarily change the context, unless they also change one of the elements listed above (e.g., focus).

Example: Opening a new window, moving focus to a different component, going to a new page (including anything that would seem to to users as if they had moved to a new page) or significantly re-arranging the content of a page, are examples of changes of context.

Collection of pages

Pages that are linked to each other through links and that have a common subject or nature. For example, the result pages of a search engine or the pages of a catalogue (for the same search) are collections of pages.

Colour (that conveys information)

Colour that has a particular purpose (example: coloured parts of a graphic having the shape of a camembert cheese, area demarcation in an image through the use of colour, expression of a feeling through colour, such as red for anger...).

Column or row header

Content of a cell in a data table (the first cell of a column or a row, in general,) that serves as text for one or all cells of the column or row. A column or a row can contain several headers (intermediary header). Headers must use a TH tag.

Consistent (reading order)

Consistent content is readable (elements' order is logical) and understandable (the reading logic is consistent).

Content of a Web page

Information (in text or other form), services or functionalities that are provided on a Web page to the exclusion navigation menus.

Contrast

Significant opposition between a foreground colour and a background colour. The contrast ratio is based on the difference of relative luminance between background and foreground according to the rule: (L1 + 0.05) / (L2 +0.05) where l1 is the relative luminance of the lighter of the colours, and L2 is the relative luminance of the darker of the colours. The luminance is calculated according to the following formula: L = 0,2126 * R + 0,7152 * G + 0,0722 * B where R, G and B are defined as: if RsRGB >= 0,03928 then R = RsRGB/12,92 else R = ((RsRGB+0,055)/1,055) ^ 2,4 if GsRGB >= 0,03928 then --G = GsRGB/12,92 else G = ((GsRGB+0,055)/1,055) ^ 2,4 if BsRGB >= 0,03928 then B = BsRGB/12.92 else B = ((BsRGB+0,055)/1,055) ^ 2,4 and RsRGB, GsRGB, and BsRGB are defined as: RsRGB = R8bit/255 GsRGB = G8bit/255 BsRGB = B8bit/255 The "^" character is the exponentiation operator.

Note: The contrast measurment is related to the text, the image of text, text and images of text in animations, the text in captions, and text that is embedded in videos. As far as text and images of text of animations and the text in captions and embedded text in videos is concerned, the font size must be measured according to the default displaying size, (as displayed). Text that is avaailable in the elements of an image or a video (for example a notice, a poster etc.) are not concerned.

Control (moving or blinking content)

User ability to control the display or reading of moving or blinking content at least with keyboard and mouse.

Control features (time-based media)

These are the control features for viewing (multimedia object) below:

  • the multimedia object must always have at least the following features: reading, pause, stop ;
  • If the multimedia object has sound, it must have a feature allowing to enable or disable sound and to control sound level;
  • if the multimedia object has captions, it must have a feature to control captions to be displayed/hidden;
  • if the multimedia object has an audio description, it must have a feature to control audio description to be enabled/disabled.

Note: If a multimedia object has no sound, it is not useful to add a feature to control volume. However, if this feature is available and requires a text alternative to be understood by some users, (example: "volume" button in a Flash video), then, one must be provided, as the user is likely to access it and wish to activate it.

Controllable by keyboard and mouse

Controlling a functionality with the keyboard means that it can be accessed via the tab key and activated via the enter key except for complex controls (slider, spin button...) that can use dedicated keys such as the arrow keys.

Controlled environment

Any environment in which accesss to information, technologies, terms of use user profile can be known and controlled. The main elements for which control is essential are:

  • The browsers' type and version
  • The supported technologies, their version and activation (Javascript, ARIA, Flash...)
  • Assistive technologies and any device used in a specific way by users with disabilities
  • The operating systems and accessibility Apis
  • Training of users of assistive technologies in using any specific device (interface, on line application...)

an information system in a controlled environment can refrain from providing alternatives for Javascript or third party technologies (Flash...). Authors and administrators must, in return, guarantee support of used technologies and of their use by users and their technologies (including assistive technologies). Information services or Web sites, whatever their status, that provide public access cannot be considered as controlled environments.

CSS property that specifies a colour

This concerns the following properties: colour, background-colour, background, border-colour, border, outline-colour, outline. Note: the use of a background image to add a colour (bakground:url property...) is also concerned.

Letter D

Data type and format

Indication regarding expected data type and format when information is entered in a form field. For example:

  • "date (dd/mm/yyy)"
  • "Total in euros"
  • "Zip code (5 numbers: ex. 75001)"

Default font size

The default font size is the size defined by the authour for the document or, if missing, the default size used by the user agent (ie the browser)

Default human language

Specification of the main processing document Language that can be available on the HTML root element or on each concerned page element via the lang and/or xml:lang attributes according to the following scheme:

  • For HTML until version 4.01: lang attribute mandatory, xml:lang attribute not supported
  • For XHTML 1.0 served in "text/html": lang and xml:lang attributes mandatory
  • For XHTML 1.0 served in "application/xhtml+xml": xml:lang attribute mandatory, lang attribute recommended
  • For XHTML 1.1: xml:lang attribute mandatory, lang attribute not supported

Default reading direction

Indicates the reading direction of the document or of a passage of text via the dir attribute, dir="ltr", for example. The two admitted values are:

  • "ltr" (left to right) indicates a reading direction from the left to the right
  • "rtl" (right to left) indicates a reading direction from the right to the left

Note: When indication about reading direction is missing, via the dir attribute on the html, body element, or one of the parents of the analysed text, the default reading direction is from left to right ("ltr" value).

Detailed description (image)

Content related to an image in addition to its text alternative in order to fully describe information conveyed by the image. The detailed description can be inserted via:

  • a longdesc attribute containing the url of a page or a location on the page containing the detailed description,
  • a reference, in the alt attribute to a detailed description that is located next to the image,
  • A link next to the image containing the url of a page or a location on the page containing the detailed description.

Document type

Set of reference data allowing user agents to know technical characteristics of the languages that are used on the Web (doctype tag).

Domain name

Unique name of a Web site; for example, www.accessiweb.org, that allows to access it. A domain name can have subdomains.

Letter E

Empty link

A link is considered to be empty when there is no content between <a href="..."> and </a> and it is no named anchor.

Explicit out of context (link)

A link must be explicit out of its context, that is, its link text (if there is no link title) or its link title (if available) must be explicit out of its context (example: a link - without link title - only with the link text "read more" is not explicit out of its context). while writing Web content, prefer explicit link text out of context to non explicit link text with a link title that makes it explicit out of its context.

Extended audio description

Audio description that is added to an audiovisual presentation by pausing the video so that there is time to add additional description. Note: this technique is only used when the sense of the video would be lost without the additional audio description and the pauses between dialogue or narration are too short.

Letter F

Focus

Focus is the state sent by an element that receives attention after a user action. In HTML there are three means to give focus to an element:

  • Activating the element with a pointing device (mouse)
  • Activating the element with the tab key
  • Activating the element with keyboard shortcut (accesskey)

Elements that receive focus natively are: A, Area Button, Input, Object, Select, label, Legend, Optgroup, Option and Textarea. The element behaviour, when it is focussed, depends from its kind; a link, for example, must be activated afted it has been focussed (except when script is used). On the other hand, a form element, such as textarea, must authorise input after it has received focus. Label and legend elements can only receive focus via the mouse pointer or the accesskey attribute. As far as the label element is concerned, the expected behaviour is to transfer focus to the element it is associated with. Note: The ARIA specification extends the role that is attributed to the tabindex attribute in defining that any HTML element can gain the possibility to receive focus in providing it with the value tabindex="0". On the other hand, no behaviour is specified via the availability of tabindex alone. Similarly, the value tabindex="-1" removes the element it is affected to from the tabing sequence, inhibitting its ability to indicate "focus". In accordance with the ARIA specification, the use of tabindex, can validate some tests related to the management of tabbing focus, in particular.

Form

Form tag allowing to insert one or several form fields gathered in same nature information blocks so that they can be processed together (submitting). Examples: a registration form, a calendar... A form can have one or several buttons.

Form field label

Text located next to the form field allowing to know its kind, type or format of expected information. The label must be implemented via a relevant <label> tag, that is associated to the concerned field.

Form input field

form object allowing the user:

  • to enter text data:
    • input type="text"
    • input type="password"
    • textarea
  • to select predefined values:
    • input type="checkbox"
    • input type="radio"
    • select
  • or to download files:
    • input type="file"

The following form objects are not considered as form fields:

  • input type="submit"
  • input type="reset"
  • input type="hidden"
  • input type="image"
  • input type="button"
  • button

Frame

HTML elements (frame tag) allowing to incorporate content in a Web page inside of rectangular areas. A frame that is defined by the frame tag is necessarily linked to a frameset tag. Several frames can be defined in a same Web page and all the frames of a same set build a frame set.

Frame title

Content of the title attribute of the frame or iframe tag.

Letter G

Web browser that allows to visualise text, graphic, multimedia elements... on the screen Synonym(s): graphic mode browser (translation of the definition provided by the Office québécois de la langue française).

Letter H

Header cells (of a table)

Header cells for a column and a row (th tag) of a data table.

Heading

HTML element (h tag) with 6 hierarchy levels (from h1 for the most important heading to h6 for the less important) allowing to structure the information of a Web content. The hierarchy between headings must be followed on a Web page and the heading levels cannot be jumped (a h3 heading cannot directly follow a h1 heading, for example). On each Web page, there must be at least one h1 heading.

Note: Headings that are hidden via CSS are considered as available and validate criterion 9.1 "On each Web page, is information structured by the appropriate use of headings".

Hidden text

Assistive technologies (in particular, screen readers) do not render text that is hidden via CSS properties:

  • display with the none value (display:none)
  • visibility with the hidden value (visibility :hidden)
  • width and height with the 0 values (width:0;height:0)
  • font-size with the 0 value (font-size:0)

All text content using one or several of these properties are applicable for criterion 10.13.

Letter I

Iframe

HTML element (iframe tag) allowing to display content on the Web page in which it is implemented.

Image

File of graphic type (format: gif, jpg, png...) incorporated in a Web content by one of the following techniques:

  • img tag
  • input tag with the attribute type="image" (form button)
  • applet tag (applet image)
  • object tag with the attribute type="image/..." (object image)

Note: Link images must be dealt with in the topic links, only (special case for the longdesc: the criteria 1.6 and 1.7 apply to an image contained in a link).

Image (decorative)

An image that has no purpose and that does not convey particular information in relation with the content it is associated with. Examples:

  • An image serving for formating page layout,
  • a rounded corner image to cover a block of information,
  • an illustrative image that does not provide information to help understand the text it is associated with.

Image Applet

Image that is incorporated or generated by an applet tag.

Image (object)

Image that is incorporated or generated by an object tag.

Image of text

Image that displays text.

Image that conveys information

An image that conveys information to help understand content it is associated with.

Image link

Link whose content between <a href="..."> and </a> is only constituted of an image. the link text of an image link is the content of the image text alternative.

Image map

  1. client-side image map (usemap attribute): image divided into clickable or neutral areas (nohref attribute).
  2. Server-side image map (ismap attribute) : image for which the browser sends the coordinates of the pointing device to the server, each set of coordinates corresponds to a resource (Web page). The server-side image map is extremely seldom.

Image (Applet text)

image incorporated or generated by the applet tag and displaying text.

Image (Object text)

image generated by the object tag and displaying text.

Image that conveys information (provided by colour)

image for which all or part of the content conveys information visually by means of one colour only.

Information (conveyed by colour)

information that is visually conveyed by means of one colour.

Information presentation

Visual rendering of content via a graphic browser. Presentation concerns style, position and dimensions of Html elements and their content. Information presentation must be realised via CSS. Elments (basefont, blink, center, font, marquee, s, strike, tt, u) and attributes (align, alink, background, basefont, bgcolour, border, colour, link, text, vlink) are forbidden. Width and height attributes used on other elements than images (img tag) are also forbidden.

Input control (form)

Set of processes allowing to inform the user about input errors in a form. A form input control is considered accessible when mandatory fields and input errors are pointed out in an accessible way (for example: mandatory fields are identified by a textual symbol and not only by colour such as "fields in red are mandatory" ).

Letter L

Language code

Code with two characters (ISO 639-1) or 3 characters (ISO 639-2 and following) allowing to specify the default language of a document or of a passage of text. The language code specification is constituted of two parts that are separated with a dash on the model lang="[code] - [option]".

  • [code] represents a valid language code of 2 or 3 characters.
  • [option] is an indication left to the author's judgment.

When a country code is used as an option, it can serve to specify a language regionalisation, the specification "en-us" indicates the american language for example. The language code specification only concerns the [code] part before the dash.

Linear reading

Reading of the content elements in the order they are written in the source code.

Link

HTML element (a tag) that can be activated by the user (with mouse, keyboard...) and that initiates an action (display of a Web page, download of a file...) or an event generated by a script. A link has at least:

  • a resource reference (href attribute)
  • a link text between <a href="..."> and </a>

Link context

The link context represents additional information (called context information) that can be programatically related to the link text. Context information that allow to make a link explicit is the following:

  • The content of the sentence in which the link text is located
  • The content of the paragraph (p tag) in which the link text is located
  • The content of the list item (li tag) or the content of a parent list item (li tag) in which the link text is located
  • The content of the heading (H tag) located before the link text
  • The content of the table header cell(s) (th tag) that is/are associated with the data cell (td tag) in which the link text is located
  • The content of the data cell (td tag) in which the link text is located
  • The content of the link title (title attribute)

Note: One of the 7 link contexts alone must help to make the link explicit.

(Explicit) Link out of context

A link is explicit out of context when the link text only (content between the tag <a href="..."> and </a>) helps to know and understand the link purpose and target.

Link (Combined)

Link whose content between <a href="..."> and </a> is formed with at least 2 elements of different types; for example, text and one or several images. the link text of a combined link is the whole text and the content of the text alternative of the image(s) that are between <a href="..."> and </a>.

Links (Identical)

Two links are considered identical when link x (link text only, content of the title attribute or link context) is equal to link y. This definition applies to all types of links: text link, image link (links have then the same image) and combined link. Warning: links with identical texts but with different link titles or different link contexts are not identical (example: <a href="link_bar.html" title="click here to download the toolbar">click here</a> and <a href="link_doc.html" title="click here to download the document">click here</a>).

Link text

Text information contained between <a href="..."> and </a> of a link completed if necessary with context information. The three different types of links are:

  • text link: this is the text between <a href="..."> and </a> that is completed, if necessary, with context information,
  • image link: this is the content of the image text alternative that is between <a href="..."> and </a> completed, if necessary, with context information,
  • combined link: this is all the text and content of the image(s) text alternative that is between <a href="..."> and </a> completed, if necessary, with context information.

Note: An image link for which the alt attribute is missing is considered as not applicable for criterion 6.6

Link text only

Content between the <a href=""> tag and </a> considered without complementary information (title attribute or context information).

Link title

Content of the title attribute of a link. This content must only be available if it is necessary to identify the link target in an explicit way. A link title must contain the link text with complementary information. A link title will be considered as not relevant in the following situations:

  • The link title is empty
  • The link title is identical with the link text (see note 1)
  • The link title does not contain the link text

Note 1: By exception, a link title that is identical with the link text is only accepted in the case of an image link (a link that only contains images), an icon, for example.

Link whose kind is not obvious

Link that can be confused with normal text when it is specified by colour alone by some types of users who have bad or no colour perception. For example, in this text "New strike at SNCF", if the word "strike" is a link that is specified by colour alone, its kind can be ignored by users who cannot perceive colour and who access content with CSS enabled. On the other hand, in this text "New strike at SNCF, read more" if "read more" is a link, a user who does not perceive colours will have no difficulties to underrstand its nature.

Note: "specified by colour alone" means that the link is accompanied by no visual indication (icon, underlying, border...). As a consequence, a link that has the same colour as the surrounding text is concerned by this criterion.

Linearising a table

Operation aiming to display all cells of a table in a vertical way in the order they inserted in the source code.

Lists

Series of elements that can be grouped in form of a structured list as ordered, unordered or definition list. For example, the succession of links in a navigation menu is an unordered link list, the different steps in a process are an ordered list of items, the pair term/definition in a glossary is a definition list. In HTML lists use the following tags:

  • ordered list: ol and li tags (each list item is marked with a non incremented sign)
  • unordered list: ul and li tag (each list item is marked with an incremented sign)
  • definition list: dl, dt (term to be defined) and dd (definition) tag

Letter N

Named anchor

In HTML, a named anchor (also called bookmark) is constituted of an <a> tag with the name or id attribute or both; for instance <a name="content"></a> or <a id="content"></a> or <a id="content", name="content></a>.
A named anchor serves as target for a link like <a href="index.php/glossary-76.html#name">text</a> for example <a href="index.php/glossary-76.html#content">skip to content</a>.

Note: In some cases, named anchors can have the form <a href="index.php/glossary-76.html#content" id="content" name="content"></a> in order to come up with the inappropriate behaviour of some browsers.
This form of named anchor should not be used because the presence of the Href attribute creates empty artificial links for assistive technologies.
Nevertheless, those particular named anchors are not considered as empty links from the point of view of criterion 6.6.

Navigation bar

List of links allowing specific navigation in the site, in a category or in a collection of pages. The main navigation bars are:

  • The main navigation menu
  • A breadcrumb trail
  • A navigation list of a result list
  • The menu of a subcategory

Consistent set of links or similar elements (form fields, elements of an animation, elements that are generated bu a script) allowing to browse in a set of Web pages

Navigation system

Any process allowing to navigate in the Web site or on a Web page, selected navigation systems are the following:

  • Main navigation menu
  • Table of contents
  • Site map
  • Search engine

Non time-based media

Content that is not time-based, that can be viewed via a plugin (Flash, Java, Silverlight...); for example, an interactive map in Flash, a Flash or Java application, a fixed diaporama are non time-based media. A non time-based media can contain time-based media (a Flash player providing a list of video to view, for example).

Note : the use of the wmode parameter for a flash object with the values "transparent" and "opaque" invalidates in fact criterion 4.21 (Can each non time-based media be controlled by the keyboard and by the mouse?). Indeed, the use of these values causes that the flash animation viewed on the side of screen reader users is invisible.

div class="thematique" id="lettreO">

Letter O

Only for layout

Only for layout: use of html tags for a purpose that is different from the one that is intended by specifications (with regard to the declared document type). Examples: use of H tags only in order to create a typographical effect; use of the blockquote tag only in order to indent a paragraph, etc. Note 1: the use of DIV or SPAN elements to create paragraphs is considered as non conforming use of these elements and invalidates the criterion.

Letter P

Page title

Content of the title tag of a Web page allowing to identify in a clear concise and unique manner, page content/nature ("site map www.sitename.fr" for a page showing the map of the Web site", for example).

Letter R

Refresh process

Technique aiming at modifying the content of one or several elements of the Web page. The refresh process can be performed by automatic reloading of the page or in a dynamic way without reloading the page (via AJAX, for example:). The user must be able to control each refresh process in an independent way.

Relevance (information other than by colour)

The means to retrieve information other than by colour must be accessible for all. For example, in the case of a list of articles where articles in yellow are in promotion, the use of hidden text via CSS is a means to retrieve information "in promotion", but it is not relevant because this information will remain hidden for the user who views the page with CSS enabled.

Note: The use of an emphasing tag (strong or em) as another means to retrieve information conveyed by colour allows to validate the criterion even if those elements are not supported by assistive technologies, in particular, by screen readers.

Letter S

Same nature information block

In a form, a set of fields that can be grouped together through the nature of expected information. For example, three following fields to enter a date (day/month/year) or a block intended for typing the user name and address. These fields should be grouped together through a fieldset tag with a relevant legend tag. Note: When the form is only constituted of one same nature information block, (user name and address, for example) or one single field (a search engine, for example), the presence of the fieldset element is not mandatory.

Screen reader

Software that is able to retrieve information that appears on the screen and to render it to the user other than visually. In general, information is rendered in form of synthetic speech or in form of display in Braille, that requires a specialised terminal.

Script

Code that is generally written in form of a list of commands (Javascript, for example). Languages that are interpreted on client-side require a compatible browser on which the language execution is enabled. Commands of a client-side script language can be embedded (script tag) or contained in an external file. In both cases, insertion is done via the <script> tag.

Search engine (inside of a Web site)

Functionality allowing the user to find specific information in a Web site via the use of a form. The search engine must perform search on all information of a Web site that can be viewed by the Internet user (the content of the files to download is not included in the definition). It is recommended that the search engine may accept tolerance for spelling errors.

Selection list

Form field that displays a series of items to select in form of a pull-down list (select tag with option tags).

Set of initials (acronym)

Abbreviation formed with the first letter of each word that build it (abbr tag). An acronym is pronounced letter by letter (ex. SNCF, RATP...).

Set of Web pages

Web pages that are linked to each other through links and that build a consistent set inside of a Web site. For example, pages of an electronic paying process, pages of a specific category, pages of a blog, the pages to manage a client banking account are set of pages. Note: A Web site's home page can build, alone, a "set of Web pages" due to its uniqueness.

Similar presentation

Relevant and uniform rendering of information contained in the same set of Web pages. A similar presentation of information allows to harmonise user experience regarding in particular, the location of particularly structuring elements (navigation menus, headings, content organisation...).

Similar structure

Consistent and uniform HTML structure in the same set of Web pages.

"Site map" page

Dedicated page presenting the structure of a Web site, in general in form of lists categories and subcategories providing access to all the pages of the Web site. Note: the links of the site map can be constituted of a tags or area tags.

Special cases

List of situations in which the implementation of an AccessiWeb criterion is specific:

Criterion 1.3

A special case management is available when the image is used as Captcha or test image. In this situation where it is not possible to give a relevant alternative without destroying the goal of the Captcha or the test, the criterion is not applicable. Note: The case of Captcha and test images is covered in a specific way by criterion 1.4.

Criterion 1.8

For this criterion, a special case management is available when:

  • Text belongs to a logo or to an element that is associated with the graphical identity of an organisation or a company (a slogan, for example). In these cases, the criterion is not applicable for those elements.
  • The image is protected by copyright, royalties or a particular legal clause forbidding its modification or the creation of a modified copy.

Note 1: Coolour changes initiated by the focus movement are not concerned by the criterion implementation, except if content also changes when focus is moved.

Note 2: Indications about the state of links (visited or active) are not concerned by the criterion implementation.

Criterion 1.9

For this criterion, a special case management is available when text belongs to a logo or an element that is associated with the graphical identity of an organisation or a company (a slogan, for example). In these cases, the criterion is not applicable for those elements.

Note 1: Colour changes initiated by the focus movement are not concerned by the criterion implementation, except if content also changes when focus is moved.

Note 2: Indications about the state of links (visited or active) are not concerned by the criterion implementation.

A special case management is available when the image is protected by copyright, royalties or a particular legal clause forbidding its modification, reproduction or the creation of a modified copy. In this case, the criterion is not applicable.

Criteria 3.3 - 3.4

For these criteria, a special case management is available when:

  • Text belongs to a logo or to an element that is associated with the graphical identity of an organisation or a company (a slogan, for example). In these cases, the criteria are not applicable for those elements.
  • The image is protected by copyright, royalties or a particular legal clause forbidding its modification or the creation of a modified copy.

Note 1: Colour changes initiated by the focus movement are not concerned by the criterion implementation, except if content also changes when focus is moved.

Note 2: Indications about the state of links (visited or active) are not concerned by the criterion implementation.

For these criteria, a special case management is available whe the image of text is used as CAPTCHA or as test image. In this situation, the criteria are not applicable.

Criteria 4.1 - 4.2 - 4.3 - 4.5 - 4.9 - 4.11 - 4.13

A special case management is available when:

  • the time-based media is used for decoration (i.e it provides no information)
  • the time-based media is itself an equivalent for a content of the page (a video in sign language or the spoken version of a text, for example)
  • the time-based media is protected by copyright, royalties or a particular legal clause forbidding its modification or the creation of a modified copy.
  • the time-based media is used to access to an enlarged version
  • the time-based media is used as captcha
  • the time-based media is part of a test that would be useless if the transcript, the synchronised captions or the audio description were provided

In these cases, the criterion is not applicable.

Criterion 4.15

A special case management is available when the time-based media is used for decoration (i.e it provides no information). In this situation, the criterion is not applicable.

Criterion 4.16

A special case management is available when:

  • the non time-based media is used for decoration (i.e it does not provide information)
  • The non time-based media is broadcast in a controlled environment
  • the non time-based media is protected by copyright, royalties or a particular legal clause forbidding its modification or the creation of a modified copy.
  • The non time-based media is embedded via javascript in checking the plug-in availability and version, replacing an alternative content that is already available

In these cases, the criterion is not applicable.

Criterion 4.19

A special case management is available when the time-based media is used as a captcha or is part of a test that would become useless if the audio bakcground could be disabled or if the dialogue track(s) were 20 décibels higher than the audio background.

In these cases, the criterion is not applicable.

Critère 4.22

A special case management is available when:

  • the time-based or non time-based media is used for decoration (i.e it provides no information)
  • the time-based or non time-based media is protected by copyright, royalties or a particular legal clause forbidding its modification or the creation of a modified copy.

In these situations, the criterion is not applicable.

Criteria 6.1 and 6.4

A special case management is available when the link is ambiguous for everybody. In this case, where it is not possible to make the link explicit in its context, the criterion is not applicable.

Criterion 7.1

A special case management is available when the script is used in a controled environment. In this case, the criterion is not applicable.

Criterion 7.3

A special case management is available when the functionality relies upon the use of an event handler without universal equivalent, for example, a free hand drawing application cannot be made operable through a keyboard. In these cases, the criterion is not applicable.

Criterion 7.6

A special case management is available when unrequested alert concerns an emergency case, an occurence or a sudden or unexpected situation that requires immediate action in order to preserve health, safety or property. In these cases, the criterion is not applicable.

Criterion 8.7

A special case management is available on language change for the following cases:

  • proper name, the criterion is not applicable
  • common name in a foreign language that is available in the official dictionary of the Web page default human language, the criterion is not applicable (Note: the official dictionary is the one that is recommended by the academy in charge of this language). As far as France is concerned, for instance, the link to the official dictionary is on the Web site of the French Academy at the following url: http://www.academie-francaise.fr/dictionnaire/index.html. For any request to the online dictionary service of the French Academy, please use the online form of the French Academy
  • the term in a foreign language is submited, via a form field and displayed again on the page (for example, as indication of the searched term in the case of a search engine), the criterion is not applicable.
  • Common name in a foreign language, that is not available in the official dictionary of the Web page default language and that has become part of the common language of the Web page default language (example: newsletter used in French): the criterion is applicable, only if the missing of language specification can cause a misunderstanding for rendering
  • Part of text for which the language cannot be determined the criterion is not applicable

Criterion 10.11

A special case management is available for Chinese, Japanese and Korean languages. In these cases, the referring amount of characters is 40.

Criterion 12.1

A special case management is available when the Web site is constituted of one single Web page or of a very limited number of pages (see. note) for which the browser search function through the page content is considered as equivalent to a search engine. In this case, the criterion is not applicable. Note: the jujgment of a very limited number of pages should reserve this special case for a Web site of 2 or 3 pages, for example, with an amount of content that is not important.

Criteria 12.2 - 12.3

A special case management is available when pages in a set of pages build the result or are part of a process (a process for payment or order registration, for example) In these cases, the criterion is not applicable.

Criterion 13.1

A special case management is available when time limit is essential, in particular, when it could not be removed without fundamentally changing content or the functions linked to content. In these cases, the criterion is not applicable. For example, refreshing a RSS feed on a Web page is not an essential time limit; the criterion is applicable. On the other hand, an automatic redirect that leads to the new version of a page from an obsolet URL is essential; the criterion is not applicable.

Criterion 13.6

A special case management is available when the document is generated dynamically (for example an invoice). In this situation, the weight specification is optional, the other specifications (file type and language) remain mandatory.

Criterion 13.7

A special case management is available when the document is protected by a copyright, royalties or a particular legal clause forbidding its modification or the creation of a modified copy. In these cases, the criterion is not applicable.

Speech browser

Browser that renders content in particular via an integrated speech synthesiser.

Speech synthesiser

Software that renders information vocally. Screen readers and speech browsers are generally distributed with one or two integrated speech synthesisers and that are able to handle several languages. Synonym(s): speech synthesis, speech engine.

Style sheet

CSS language used to layout content elements (examples: page background colour, character size/font/colour, information position on the Web page...). CSS styles can be external (CSS file), embedded (declared in the page head) or on line (declared via the style attribute of a tag).

Styled text

Text for which layout is controlled by a style sheet.

Subdomain

Space on a Web server that is accessible by an identifier associated with a domain name. Example : http://subdom.site.com is a subdomain of the domain name site.com. This adress corresponds to the url http://www..site.com/naem_of_sub_domain where name_of_sub_domain is a directory.

Summary (of table)

Content of the summary attribute of a table that presents its organisation and content in a short and accurate way, in order to facilitate its viewing. If it is available, the summary of a layout table is empty (summary= "").

Supported by assistive technologies

Supported by users' assistive technologies as well as the accessibility features in browsers and other user agents via an accessibility API.

This concerns, the technology, its features and its uses at the same time:

  • The way that the Web content technology is used must be supported by users' assistive technology. This means that the way that the technology is used has been tested for interoperability with users' assistive technologies in the human language(s) of the content,
  • the technology is supported natively in widely-distributed user agents that are also accessibility supported (such as HTML and CSS) or in a widely-distributed plugin that is also accessibility supported.

Checking for support by assistive technologies requires to perform a certain amount of tests that are specific for the technology used. For instance, for Flash, three main points are concerned:

  • name, role, value and status changes of interface components;
  • alternative for non text elements;
  • reading order of the content.

Synchronised audio description (time-based media)

A narration that is added (via a set of sound files) to an audio track in order to describe important visual details that cannot be understood from the main audio track only. The audio description should be synchronised with the time-based media through the use of a synchronisation language such as SMIL (Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language).

  • Note 1: the audio description of a video provides information about actions, characters, scene changes, on-screen text and other visual content.
  • Note 2: in standard audio description, narration is added during existing pauses in dialogue. (See also extended audio description.)
  • Note 3: where all of the video information is already provided in the audio track, no additional audio description is necessary.

Synchronised captions (multimedia object)

Text of audio information (speech of a persona, noise that is important to understand action...) that is available in a time-based media and displayed in a synchronous way with the feed of the multimedia object. Note: In order to differentiate audio sources (different personas, off voice ...), it is recommended to use an appropriate mechanism (writing text in square brackets, writing in italics, explicitly announce type "off voice: ...").

Letter T

Tabbing order

Order in which focus is moving (to the next element or to the previous element). The natural order is the order that is implemented via the source code. When it is modified by the use of the tabindex attribute or by the use of javascript, then the modified order is the refer ence. Warning: When an element initiates a change on the page (change of context, management of hidden areas, content addition, management of form fields...) it is necessary to activate the element initiating the change of contexte to check the consistency of the tabbing order.

Table

HTML element (table tag) allowing to incorporate content in cells placed in row and column. There are data tables and layout tables.

Table (data)

Html element (table tag) allowing to structure information in rows and columns via data cells (td tag) and header cells (th tag).

Table (layout)

Technique using an Html element (table tag) to control information display via cells (td tag).

Test image

Image serving in a test, Captcha or an image serving as test in a Quiz or a game. Example: a series of images present a detail from famous pictures; the title and the painter of each picture must be recognised. In this case, it is not possible to provide a relevant alternative (e.g. the picture name and/or painter) without making the test unusable The alternative must then only provide the ability to identify the image; for example "image 1 of the test".

Browser that renders information in a text form. The rendering of non text elements of the content is based on text alternatives when they are available. Synonym(s): text mode browser.

Text link

Link whose content between <a href="..."> and </a> is only constituted of text (it is the link text).

Text transcript (time-based media)

Text content that is associated with a time-based media through the appropriate technique (HTML coded text or in a text file placed on the same page or that can be read from a link). This content provides the user with the following (independently from the viewing of the multimedia object):

  • all that is expressed orally,
  • all descriptive information that is necessary for an equivalent understanding of action.

This textual information must be presented in the chronological order it appears in the time-based media. Note: if the text transcript is located outside of the object tag, it is not necessary to repeat it inside of this tag.

Time-based media (type sound, video and synchronised)

  • Audio-only time-based media: audio content (Wave, Mp3...)
  • Video-only time-based media: moving or sequenced images or pictures en séquence
  • Synchronised time-based media: audio or video feed that is synchronised with another format to present information and/or having time-based interactive components. A time-based media can be viewed in 2 different ways:
    • a file to download that can be viewed with a software external to the Web page,
    • content that is embedded in the Web page and that can be viewed on the Web page via a plugin.

A time-based media can be broadcast live or be provided for viewing in an asynchronous way (prerecorded media).

Note 1: the use of the wmode parameter for a flash object with the values "transparent" and "opaque" invalidates in fact criterion 4.20 (Can each time-based media be controlled by the keyboard and by the mouse?). Indeed, the use of these values causes that the flash animation viewed on the side of screen reader users is invisible.

Note 2: Animated gif and images that are animated through javascript are not considered as time-based media.

Title of a (data) table

Content of an Html element (caption tag) allowing to identify the content of a data table in a clear and concise way.

Letter U

Until or from 150% (1.5em) of the default font size without bolding Until or from 120% (1.2em) of the bold default font size

these two measures define the relative character size corresponding to a font size equivalent to 14 points bold or 18 points without bolding considering that the body font is to 100%. Note: until 150% and until 120% means that the character size is strictly less than 150 or 120 %. From 150% and from 120% means that the character is equal to or greater than 150 or 120%.

Url

Address allowing to access to the resources of the World Wide Web: HTML document, Web pages, image, sound... Note: In the AccessiWeb reference list, the notion of url is used instead of uri (compact character chain that identifies a resource).

User process

Series of actions performed by the user where each action is necessary to finalise the online action. Examples: the action of shopping on an e-commerce Web site with a basket of products, the online declaration of income... The accessibility of a process can be tested the same way as for a script: it is recommended to test the accessibility of a process in checking if it can be controlled at least by keyboard and mouse, and by checking if its alternative (if necessary) is accessible.

Letter V

Valid code

  • Case of an HTML page: code in which the implementation of tags and attributes follows the specifications of the declared document type.
    • Note 1: Except if opposite specification, attributes that are not listed by specifications are not applicable.
    • Note 2: Except for opposite indication (the bgsound tag, for example), tags that are not listed by specifications (embed tag or audio/video/canvas tags, for example) are not applicable.
    • Note 3: guideline C3 of the Xhtml specification ("Element Minimization and Empty Element Content") states that the use of minimised elements (<code><elm /></code>) for empty elements (for example <p /> instead of <p></p>) is not advised. This practice builds a non-conformance in the frame of AccessiWeb 2.
  • Case of a page that implements WAI ARIA: code in which the implementation of tags and attributes follows the specifications of the declared document type and in which WAI ARIA implementation conforms to the WAI ARIA specification.

Viewing control (of a time-based media)

User ability to control the viewing of time-based media with at least keyboard and mouse. The issues below must be followed:

  • list of mandatory features to control viewing:
    • the multimedia object must always have at least the following features: reading, pause, stop,
    • if the multimedia object has sound, it must have a feature to control volume,
    • if the multimedia object has captions, it must have a feature to control that captions be enabled/disabled,
    • if the multimedia object has audio description, it must have a feature to control that audio description be enabled/disabled.
  • each feature must be accessible at least with keyboard, via the tab key, and with mouse,
  • each feature must be activable at least by keyboard and mouse.

Note: if a time-based media has no sound, it is not useful to add a feature to control volume.

Visible content

Content that is available and visible when CSS is enabled. Note 1: There is a difference between "content that is available" and "visible content" in the tests related to criterion 10.2 For test 10.2.1: "Content that is available" means that visible content remains available when CSS is disabled. For example, an image that conveys information in a CSS background property invalidates this test because information is not "available" anymore when CSS is disabled. On the other hand, an image that conveys information that is in a CSS background property but accompanied with a hidden text validates this test because information is really "available" when CSS is disabled. As far as tests 10.2.2 and 10.2.3 are concerned, "visible content" means that content remains visible when images or colours are disabled but when CSS remains enabled. For example, an image in CSS background property invalidates these tests because "visible" content becomes "invisible" when images are disabled. On the other hand, an image in a CSS background property that is accompanied with a hidden text can validate these tests if hidden text is "visible" when images or colours are disabled but when CSS is enabled. Note 2: The practice that consists in handling images in background property of elements via CSS is definitely not advised, even if it is accompanied with a hidden text that becomes "visible" when images or colours are disabled.

Visual information (time-based media)

All visual information that is available in a time-based media and that is necessary to understand action in general: personas and their important behaviour /movements, environment (inside, outside...), objects...

Letter W

W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)

World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) mission is to lead the Web to its full potential in developing common protocols that encourage its evolution and ensure its interoperability. For more information, visit the W3C Web site.

WAI ARIA

The document WAI-ARIA explains how to make Web content and Web applications more accessible for people with disabilities. In particular, it helps make dynamic content and advanced interfaces developed with Ajax, HTML, JavaScript and all related technologies, that are on the user side, accessible. Currently, some features used in Web sites are not available for some users with disabilities; in particular, people who use a screen reader and people who cannot use a mouse. WAI-ARIA meets these new accessibility needs; it defines, for example, new feature programming methods. The intent is to inform at any time, assistive technologies about their role and status, and then allow people with disabilities to interact with them via their assistive technology. with WAI-ARIA, developers can create accessible and usable Web applications for people with disabilities.

WAI

The Web Accessibility Initiative was created in 1996 within the W3C, that establishes international guidelines to make Web sites accessible for all, but in particular for Internet users with disabilities. For more information, visit the WAI Web site.

WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines)

The "Web Content Accessibility Guidelines" constitute an international reference published by WAI. It defines guidelines and techniques to produce Web sites that are accessible for all.

WCAG checkpoint

this term is used in WAI documents, and, in particular, in WCAG 1.0. It determines a condition to check regarding the accessibility of a Web page.

Web page

Content that can be viewed in a Web browser from a unique url.

Web site: set of all Web pages

  • linked with Web links,
  • belonging to the same domain name (ex: accessiweb.org),
  • that build a relevant set from the user point of view.

Special case for Web page of a subdomain; a subdomain can:

  • either belong to the Web site associated to the domain name, if the user has a consistent perception with the other pages of the Web site (for example: same structure, same navigation...),
  • or not belong to the Web site that is associated with the domain name (for example: different blogs in subdomain of a domain name and without relationship with each other).